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Aids to Reading the Documents

Textual Conventions

Repository Symbols

The original locations of documents that appear in the text are described by Symbols. The guide used for American repositories has been Symbols of American Libraries, eleventh edition (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1976). Foreign repositories and collections have been assigned symbols that conform to the institutions' own usage. In some cases, however, it has been necessary to formulate acronyms. Acronyms have been created for private manuscript collections as well.
AFRC Federal Archives and Records Center, East Point, Georgia
ATT Tuskegee Archives, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama
DJ-FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
DLC Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
DNA National Archives, Washington, D.C.
     RG 59 General Records of the Department of State
     RG 60 General Records of the Department of Justice
     RG 65 Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
     RG 84 Records of Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State
     RG 94 Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780s–1917
     RG 165 Records of the War Department, General and Special Staffs, Military Intelligence Division
     RG 204 Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney
     RG 233 Records of the United States House of Representatives
GAPT Pitts Theology Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
IU University of Ibadan Library, Ibadan, Nigeria
JA Jamaica Archives, Spanish Town, Jamaica
KCAL Killie Campbell Africana Library, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa
NaMal National Archives of Malawi, Zomba
NAN National Archives of Nigeria, Ibadan
NaNam National Archives of Namibia, Windhoek
NN-Sc Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York
PRO Public Records Office
     CO Colonial Office
     FO Foreign Office
     WO War Office
SAGA South African Government Archives, Pretoria
SAGA-CA Cape Archives, Cape Town, South Africa
     GSC Archives of the Registrar, Eastern Cape Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa
     I/ELN Archives of the Magistrate, East London
     I/MCR Archives of the Magistrate and Bantu Affairs Commissioner, Maclear
     I/SPT Archives of the Magistrate and Bantu Affairs Commissioner, Sterkspruit (Herschel)


Manuscript Collection Symbols

ADM Admiralty and Secretariat Papers, NaNam
AOC African Orthodox Church Papers, GAPT
AP Atlanta Federal Penitentiary Records, AFRC
CSO Colonial Secretary's Office, JA, NAN
HM Herbert Macaulay Papers, IU
JEB John E. Bruce Papers, NN-Sc
NAACP  Records of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Papers, DLC
NTS Archives of the Department of Native Affairs, SAGA
RRM Robert Russa Moton Papers, ATT


Descriptive Symbols

The following symbols are used to describe the character of the original documents:
ADS Autograph document signed
ALS Autograph letter signed
AMS Autograph manuscript
ATG Autograph telegram message 
PD Printed document
TD Typed document
TDS Typed document signed
TG Telegram
TL Typed letter
TLI Typed letter initialed
TLS Typed letter signed
TMS Typed manuscript
TN Typed note
TNI Typed note initialed
TNS Typed note signed
TTG Typed telegram


Abbreviations of Published Works

AP L. H. Gann and Peter Duigan, eds. African Proconsuls: European Governors in Africa. New York: Free Press, 1978.
ATOR African Times and Orient Review
BA 0 Brado Africano
BM Black Man, monthly, Kingston and London
Bm Blackman, weekly, Kingston
BMo E. David Cronon. Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. 2d ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
BPSA&L  Les Switzer and Donna Switzer. The Black Press in South Africa and Lesotho. Boston: G. K. Hall and Co., 1979.
CBD Cambridge Biographical Dictionary
CHA J. D. Fage and Roland Oliver, eds. The Cambridge History of Africa. 8 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975-1986.
DAHB Mark R. Lipschutz and R. Kent Rasmussen. Dictionary of African Historical Biography. 2d ed. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1986.
DANB Dictionary of American Negro Biography
DBF Dictionnaire de biographie française
DG Daily Gleaner
DNB Dictionary of National Biography
DOCOL Dominions Office and Colonial Office List
DSAB Dictionary of South African Biography. Cape Town, 1968-.
EA Encyclopaedia Africana
EB Encyclopaedia Britannica
ESA Eric Rosenthal. Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. 6th ed. London and New York: Frederick Warne, 1973.
EWH William L. Langer, comp. and ed. An Encyclopedia Of World History. 5th ed., rev. and enl. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1972. 
FPC Gail M. Gerhart and Thomas Karis. From Protest to Challenge: A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa,1882-1964. 4 vols. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1972-1977
HDG Daniel Miles McFarland. Historical Dictionary of Ghana. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
HDM Cynthia A. Crosby. Historical Dictionary of Malawi. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1980.
HDN A. Oyewole. Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987.
HDSA Christopher C. Saunders. Historical Dictionary of South Africa.  Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1983. 87.
HDSL Cyril P. Foray. Historical Dictionary of Sierra Leone. Metuchen. N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977.
HDT Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Togo. 2d ed. Metuchen,  N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987.
IJAHS International Journal of African Historical Studies
JAH Journal of African History
JAS Journal of the African Society
JHSN Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria
JNH  Journal of Negro History
LWR Lagos Weekly Record
L&L Robert A. Hill and Barbara Bair, eds. Marcus Garvey: Life and  Lessons. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987.
MGP Marcus Garvey Papers
NW Negro World
NYB Negro Year Book
NYT New York Times
PAM Imanuel Geiss. The Pan-African Movement: A History of Pan-Africanism in America, Europe and Africa. Translated by Ann Keep. New York: Africana Publishing, 1974.
RANSA Peter Walshe. The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: The African National Congress, 1912-1952. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971.
SADNB Eric Rosenthal. Southern African Dictionary of National Biography, London: Frederick Warne, 1966.
SALB South African Labour Bulletin
SESA Standard Encyclopedia of Southern Africa. Cape Town, 1972.
SLWN Sierra Leone Weekly News
TN Times of Nigeria
WBD Webster's Biographical Dictionary
WNGD Webster's New Geographical Dictionary
WWW Who Was Who

Other Symbols And Abbreviations

Included are abbreviations that are used generally throughout annotations of the text. Standard abbreviations, such as those for titles and scholastic degrees, are omitted. Abbreviations that are specific to a single annotation appear in parentheses after the initial citation and are used thereafter in the rest of the annotation.
ACL African Communities League
AME African Methodist Episcopal Church
ANC African National Congress
AOC African Orthodox Church
APU African Progress Union
BSL Black Star Line, Inc.
ICU Industrial and Commercial Workers Union
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
NCBWA National Congress of British West Africa
SANNC South African Native National Congress
SPAO Society of Peoples of African Origin
UNIA Universal Negro Improvement Association

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This page updated 9 October 2000 by