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Selected Bibliography

There are many available sources on the thought of Marcus Garvey and the history of the Garvey movement. Amy Jacques Garvey's compilation of Garvey's speeches and writings, Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, was originally issued as two separate volumes, Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey (New York: Universal Publishing House, 1923; reprint, San Francisco: Julian Richardson, Associates, 1967) and Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey; or, Africa for the Africans (New York: Universal Publishing House, 1925). Reprint editions of the combined volumes include those issued by London's Frank Lass and Company in 1967 and New York's Atheneum Press in 1969. Philosophy and Opinions remains a classic, as does Jacques Garvey's memoir, Garvey and Garveyism (Kingston: private printing, 1963; reprint, New York: Collier, 1976). Len Nembhard's memorial edition of Trials and Triumphs of Marcus Garvey (Kingston: Gleaner Co., 1940) is the first, though little known, book-length essay on the life and thought of Garvey. The first major scholarly study of Garvey's career, E. David Cronon's Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955), is still a popular source on the UNIA leader's life and the business affairs of his organization. Newer additions to the biographical study of Garvey and the significance of the Garvey movement include Theodore Vincent's Black Power and the Garvey Movement (Berkeley, Calif.: Ramparts Press, 1971); John Henrik Clarke's anthology, compiled with the assistance of Amy Jacques Garvey, Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa (New York: Random House, 1974); Tony Martin's Race First (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976); W. F. Elkins's Black Power in the Caribbean: The Beginnings of the Modern Nationalist Movement (Brooklyn: Revisionist Press, 1977); Randall K. Burkett's Black Redemption: Churchmen Speak for the Garvey Movement (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978) and Garveyism as a Religious Movement: The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1978); Judith Stein's The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985); Rupert Lewis's Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion (London: Karia Press, 1987); and Winston James's Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America (London: Verso, 1998). Emory J. Tolbert's monograph, The UNIA and Black Los Angeles (Los Angeles: Center of Afro-American Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, 1980), is a contribution to the study of the UNIA at the local divisional level, and Lenwood G. Davis's and Janet Sims's Marcus Garvey: An Annotated Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980) is a compilation of sources on the UNIA leader's career. Papers originally presented at the International Seminar on Marcus Garvey sponsored by the African Studies Association of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica, in January 1973, have been reprinted as Garvey, Africa, Europe, and the Americas, edited by Rupert Lewis and Maureen Warner-Lewis (Kingston: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1986).

The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York, holds important primary materials on the history of the UNIA in New York in its archives, including the surviving records of the UNIA Central Division. Fisk University, Nashville, houses the Amy Jacques Garvey and Marcus Garvey Memorial collections. The National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C., is also an important repository of materials about the Garvey movement.

Documentary compilations of the work of Marcus Garvey include The Black Man: A Monthly Magazine of Negro Thought and Opinion, edited by Robert A. Hill (Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus-Thomson, 1975) and More Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, edited by E. U. Essien-Udom and Amy Jacques Garvey (London: Frank Cass and Co., 1977). Tony Martin has compiled The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983); Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983); and Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy (Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1986).

The following sources provide useful information on Garvey, Garveyism, and Africa: Ian Duffield, "Duse Mohamed Ali: An Example of the Economic Dimension of Pan-Africanism," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 4, no. 4 (1969): 571-600; J. Ayodele Langley, "Chief Sam's African Movement and Race Consciousness in West Africa," Phylon 32, no. 2 (summer 1971): 164-178; Ian Duffield, "Duse Mohamed Ali and the Development of Pan-Africanism, 1866-1945," (Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1971); J. Ayodele Langley, Pan-Africanism and Nationalism in West Africa, 1900-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), p. 270; Robert Edgar, "Garveyism in Africa: Dr. Wellington and the American Movement in the Transkei," Ufahamu 6, no. 3 (1976): 31-57; S. K. B. Asante, Pan-African Protest: West Africa and the Italo-Ethiopian Crisis, 1934-1941 (London: Longman, 1977); Rina L. Okonkwo, "The Garvey Movement in British West Africa," Journal of African History 21, no. 1 (1980): 105-117; G. O. Olusanya, The West African Students Union and the Politics of Decolonization, 1925-1958 (Ibadan: Daystar Press, 1982); Robert A. Hill, "Before Garvey: Chief Alfred Sam and the African Movement, 1912-1916," in Pan-African Biography, ed. Robert A. Hill (Los Angeles: African Studies Center/Crossroads Press, 1984); Rina L. Okonkwo, Heroes of West African Nationalism (Enugu, Nigeria: Delta Publishers, 1985); Robert A. Hill, and Gregory A. Pirio, "'Africa for the Africans': The Garvey Movement in South Africa, 1920-1940," in The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa, ed. Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido (London: Longman, 1987); George M. Fredrickson, Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United States and South Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Alberto Sbacchi, Legacy of bitterness: Ethiopia and fascist Italy, 1935-1941 (Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press, c. 1997).

The most comprehensive documentary edition of primary documents on Garvey and the Garvey movement is the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Papers, published by the University of California Press and produced by the Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers project, African Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles. It will eventually include volumes dealing with the impact of Garvey and the UNIA in North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa.

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